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Bladder Stones

Bladder stones are small, hard masses of minerals that develop in the bladder when the urine in the bladder becomes too concentrated. The concentrated urine causes minerals to crystallize and form these masses. Additionally, stagnant urine (urine that remains in the bladder for long periods of time) also leads to the formation of crystals.

Concentrated urine can be the result of dehydration and stagnation resulting from not being able to empty the bladder completely, which is a symptom of such conditions as enlarged prostate, a urinary tract infection, or another bladder problem.

In men, enlarged prostate/BPH is often the number one contributor to the development of bladder stones.

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Symptoms of Bladder Stones

Some men may have no symptoms of bladder stones while others may exhibit symptoms that can include:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Hematuria (blood in the urine)
  • Frequent urination
  • Pain when urinating
  • Recurrent UTIs (stones can act as “hiding places” for bacteria)

Causes of Bladder Stones

There are several conditions that can contribute to the formation of bladder stones including:

Enlarged Prostate

Enlarged prostate or BPH is a common condition in men as they age and is usually the number one cause of bladder stones in men. The enlarged prostate gland squeezes the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder outside of the body) so that it interferes with normal urination. Men with an enlarged prostate often experience urinary retention and difficulty urinating. Urine remaining in the bladder can lead to the formation of bladder stones.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

Some bacteria cause chronic urinary tract infections to form. This is usually associated with incomplete emptying of the bladder or foreign bodies (such as catheters).

Flaccid Neurogenic Bladder

Conditions or abnormalities of the nervous system such as stroke, Parkinson’s disease, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis, as well as congenital birth defects such as spina bifida can adversely affect normal bladder function, causing the complex bladder condition called neurogenic bladder. This condition affects the nerves that carry signals from the brain to the bladder. Signals that tell the bladder that it is full or that it is time to empty do not work. This may lead to urine remaining in the bladder and the formation of stones.

Fortunately, men diagnosed with neurogenic bladder have access to some of the South East’s foremost physicians specializing in this neurologic condition. These Urology Associates physicians are fellowship-trained in neuro-urology and in diagnosing and treating this complex condition.

Diagnosing Bladder Stones

Men who present with symptoms will be evaluated by one of Urology Associate’s experienced stone disease specialists. Your urologist may order specific diagnostic tests including:

  • Urinalysis: checks the urine for infection or crystallization or blood
  • CT Scan: an imaging study that can check for abnormalities in the bladder
  • Ultrasound: an imaging test that uses sound waves to create images of the inside of the bladder
  • X-Ray: an imaging test that shows the inside of the bladder, but may not be as accurate in showing all stones in the bladder
  • Intravenous Pyelogram: a test where dye is injected and flows into the blood vessels that lead to the bladder. The dye highlights abnormalities inside of the bladder, including stones, and an X-ray is then taken.

Treating Bladder Stones

Getting urine to flow normally from the bladder is the most important treatment for bladder stones. The most common underlying cause of bladder stones in men is an enlarged prostate or BPH. Men with an enlarged prostate should be treated accordingly to alleviate urinary symptoms that can lead to the formation of bladder stones. Once the enlarged prostate is treated and normal urination resumes, small bladder stones can usually be passed and will often not recur.

For men whose stones are caused by an infection such as a urinary tract infection (UTI) that causes urine to remain in the bladder, treatment with a course of oral antibiotics can clear the infection so normal urination can resume.

Your urologist will determine the underlying cause of your bladder stones and recommend a course of action to remove the stones and treat the underlying cause.